Regional Trade Agreements (ATRs) – The WTO uses the term “regional trade agreements” as a generic for all reciprocal agreements, such as trade agreements, free trade agreements and partial agreements. This is because such agreements were primarily within the jurisdiction of the WTO Regional Trade Agreements Committee. In reality, such trade agreements should not include members. B from the same region (e.g., EU-Canada or Peru-South Korea free trade agreements). Since the beginning of the 20th century, several hundred bilateral THPs have been signed. The Canada Research Chair in International Political Economy`s TREND project[6] lists approximately 700 trade agreements, the vast majority of which are bilateral. [7] The way in which free trade agreements are designated may also differ. Most free trade agreements are designated by listing the participating countries and adding the term “FTA.” For example, the Canada-Korea Free Trade Agreement. However, some free trade agreements are called under different names. For example, the Canada-EU free trade agreement is referred to as a comprehensive economic and trade agreement. Other countries call their trade agreements Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) or Global Economic Partnerships (CEPs). Other variants are also used.

Each free trade agreement is negotiated and agreed separately by the participating countries. A country may be a member of several free trade agreements. Preferential rules of origin are applied to prevent third countries from benefiting from preferential tariffs under a free trade agreement without presenting reciprocal benefits. Second, the term “preferential trade agreements” can be used for agreements with a partial scope. These agreements provide preferential market access by reducing import tariffs to a limited amount of goods. These tariff preferences have led to many departures from the principle of normal trade relations, namely that members of the World Trade Organization (WTO) should apply the same tariff to imports from other WTO members. [1] Given the recent proliferation of bilateral TTPs and the emergence of mega-PTAs (broad regional trade agreements such as the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) or the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), a global trading system managed exclusively under the WTO now seems unrealistic and the interactions between trade systems must be taken into account. The increasing complexity of the international trading system resulting from the proliferation of EPZs should be taken into account when considering the choice of countries or regions used by countries or regions to promote their trade relations and environmental agendas. [2] ATPs have grown rapidly; In the 1990s, there were just over 100 PTAs. In 2014, there were more than 700. [3] The World Trade Organization unilaterally characterizes preferential trade agreements and reciprocal trade agreements as regional trade agreements.